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Citrus By-Products and Processing Technology, Handbook of

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The approach of Handbook of Citrus By-products and Processing Technology is to briefly recognize and describe the various traditional and modern citrus processing technologies, where they apply to juice and by-products. Many details and references provide basic knowledge of the practical chemical aspects of juice products and their manufacture. Technological and chemical descriptions of the by-products are also included.

The large amount of fruit processed for juice recovery requires an understanding of modern technology and a large by-products industry to utilize the peel residue, essential oils, and other components that comprise almost half of the fruit mass. It is important for those planning to increase citrus production to deal with these issues of residue disposition because, inevitably, more fruit will be processed than sold fresh once regional production exceeds per capita consumption of whole fruit.

The traditional citrus by-products of cattle feed pellets and essential oils are still the most important utilization of juice processing residue, necessitated by the large mass available and the unique composition of soluble sugars, pectin, and volatile oils. As for many foods, world consumer interest in health benefits of naturally occurring chemical constituents has also stimulated investigations of certain compounds in citrus residues. Since the concentration of these compounds in the waste streams may be very low, it is imperative to not lose sight of the practical aspects of separation and recovery technologies. Also, economics of waste handling must be considered for any potential manufacture of these as new citrus by-products.

Contents:  Preface 

1 the Citrus Industry - Introduction, Historical basis for processing

2 Fruit Growing, Harvesting, Handling, and Grading for Processing

3 Composition, Properties and Evaluation of Fruit Components

4 Juice Processing Operations - Extraction, Finishing, Centrifugation

5 Single-Strength Juices and Concentrate - Fresh juice, Pasteurized juice, Frozen concentrated juices

6 Juice Chemical Reactions, Product Stability and Packaging

7 Pulp Washing, Juice Pulp Recovery, and Utilization

8 Whole Juice Cells, Drum-Dried Juice Sacs and Sections 

9 Peel Fiber, Cloud and Products

10 Dried Pulp, Pellets and Molasses

11 Essential oils and Essences - Recovery, Composition, Distilled oils, Use and elevation, Storage and handling

12 d-Limonene - Recovery, Storage and transportation, Properties, Utilization  

13 Pectin - Manufacture, Composition, Utilization

14 Bioconversion Products - Alcohol, Wine, Vinegar, 2,3-Butylene Glycol, Protein, Methane, Waste treatment, Other products

15 Flavonoids and Limonoids - Hesperidin, Naringin, Polymethoxylated flavones, Limonoids

16 Seed products

17 Nutraceuticals, Mystical Substances, and By-products.

Robert J Braddock, 1999, 247 p, illustrated.  (List: $223.95)  $201.95

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